to the Table of Contents
Transition Planning -- The Process
Effective transition planning should be directed by the student and should
describe outcomes that reflect the student's post-school vision of life.
The process should be a collaborative effort of the student, his/her family,
school personnel, human service agencies, and community representatives.
The transition process is dynamic and will most likely change over time.
It may begin as early as elementary school and no later than age 16, continue
through high school, and carry through the different phases of adult life.
This section of the guide will focus on the phases of consumer-led transition
for students during their junior and high school years as they relate both
to current "best practice" and to requirements under the Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Specifically this section will discuss:
The following are two synopses of students who are transitioning
from high school to adult life. These examples illustrate only two different
students in two different situations and by no means represent the magnitude
of possibilities for all students.
John has just turned sixteen, is at the beginning
of his sophomore year of high school, and receives special education services
because of his learning disabilities and mild cerebral palsy which cause
an inability to make effective progress in regular education. He hopes
to graduate shortly before his 18th birthday, move into an apartment, eventually
become an artist (sketching and sculpting), keep up with his basketball,
and have a small group of good friends who enjoy eating out and fun times.
John, his parents, & teacher get together to discuss IEP.
The IEP is written with a statement of needed transition services.
Elective classes include 10th-grade Home Economics, Drafting I, Introduction
to Computers, PE/Health.
Joins Art Club and plays on junior varsity basketball team at school.
Helps design flyers for his best friend, who's running for student senator.
Goes to movies with friends, dates occasionally.
MRC identified as appropriate adult service agency. Application process
for service begins.
Elective classes include 11th-grade Home Economics Sculpture/Pottery I,
Advanced Computer, PE/Health, Sex Ed./Family Planning, Driver's Education.
Continues with Art Club & joins teen basketball league at local YMCA.
Fulfills flyer design requests from other clubs.
Takes a sketching class at the Adult Education Center.
Takes a part-time janitorial position at a local art store.
Applies to art programs in local schools & colleges; takes SAT &
Starts dating someone he met at a school dance.
MRC accepts application, rep. attends TEAM mtg.
Elective classes include The Arts and History, Desktop Publishing and Yearbook
Prod., Journalism (develops cartoons for school paper), You and Your Car,
Sculpting I (at local college).
Continues Art Club, creates system whereby clubs can request flyer designs
from Art Club. Quits league at YMCAdoesn't have time for everything.
Increases hrs. at art store. Promoted halfway through the year to cashier.
Applies to two-year college to study sketching, sculpting, and computer
Begins dating new girl he met at college orientation.
Decides to live at home his first year of college to save money for a car.
Graduates high school!
Applies for SSI (school assisted with application prior to graduation).
MRC pays for first-year tuition. MRC rehab. engineer figures out some modifications
for art tools and John's new computer.
Joins intramural basketball league.
Works with the asst. dean of students to help teachers understand his accommodation
Spends some weekends and other free time with new friends; dates a woman
from one of his classes.
Continues working at art store through summer then quits to take internship
w/ graphic designer.
Joins other students in designing a sculpting exhibit at the student center.
One of his pieces is purchased.
Finds an apartment with a couple of friends and signs a lease beginning
just after he turns 19.
Fran is 14 and has spent most of her school
years in separate special education classrooms in her community school.
She has the ability to operate her electric wheelchair and her Minspeak
(an electronic communication device). When she fails to communicate, no
one is certain if it is because she does not understand, does not have
the response she wants available, or just does not feel like talking.
Fran gets along best with her older brother's friends and seems to have
a strong desire to do the same things as her brother. Her parents, therefore,
decide the best program for her is the local high school, which has a strong
vocational/technical program and where Fran can be included in both high
school and community activities. They hope that she will someday have a
job, live in an apartment with the necessary supports, and be able to enjoy
her life. Fran loves clothes, cooking, hanging out with her friends, going
to the movies, swimming, and WWF (wrestlingher favorite is Hulk Hogan).
Fran's last IEP mtg. included a statement of needed transition services;
inclusion in regular ed.; integrated related services (speech, OT, PT,
RT); participation in extracurricular and community-based activities; ADLs.
Classes include Shop I, PE, Intro. to Computers, Home Economics, Science,
English. During study hall the inclusion specialist works with study monitor
to assist Fran and other students.
Joins student volunteer org. where groups of students volunteer together
in the community.
Goes to local Y twice a week to swim (usually with her brother).
IEP and transition statement are similar to previous year with the addition
of gaining work experience. MRC attends mtg.
Classes include Computers, Business Apprenticeship (a business class tied
to work experience in school store), English, General Math, study hall.
Continues with high school volunteer organization.
Attends most school dances, makes several friends who love to come over,
watch videos, listen to music, and read magazines.
Joins drama troupe at school.
Swims twice weekly at the Y with brother and a friend. They often go to
the mall after swimming.
IEP and transition statement are similar, with more emphasis on real work
(in community jobs for pay). DET, DMR and MRC all attend. Application process
for adult services begins.
Classes include Home Economics II, Business Apprenticeship II (class is
half day and tied to a minimum of four community-based work experiences),
Computers, study hall.
Continues with drama troupe, making sets and costumes.
Continues swimming at the Y with a friend. They hope to learn to ski next
Attends school dances and other social events in the hopes of finding a
IEP & transition statement have a heavy emphasis on work.
Fran, her teacher, and father advocate for shared service responsibility.
The LEA, DMR, and MRC agree to share the costs & responsibilities of
services and supports for a summer job.
Begins going to DET for interviewing skills and resume preparation.
Classes include Apprenticeship II, Health/Sex Education, PE.
Has successful audition for small part in annual music show.
Helps plan senior talent show.
Continues to swim at the Y.
IEP and transition statement emphasize independent living and work skills.
Continues receiving training from DET.
Fran invites school personnel, DMR, MRC, family and friends to participate
in Person Centered Planning.
Identifies her dreams as living in her own accessible apartment with a
roommate and working with animals.
DMR helps Fran get on waiting list for subsidized housing (est. wait of
Voc. teacher & MRC assist Fran in getting a part-time job at The Gap
as a dressing room assistant. Continues taking Health/Sex Ed.
With the assistance of the special education teacher and her parents, she
begins to participate in a community theater group.
Goes skiing during winter break with her old friend from the Y who returns
from college. Friend hopes to learn to ski well enough to become a guide
for Fran, who uses a sit ski, so they can go together.
Begins going on double dates with a friend from The Gap and a boy she's
known since her childhood.
At IEP meeting, Fran indicates a desire to leave school. A discussion follows
and school agrees to include primarily educating on the job (i.e., most
of Fran's day will be spent at a paying job in the community) and in the
community (e.g., library, restaurants, health club, and other places of
Still on waiting list for subsidized housing; continues to live at home.
MRC assists Fran in securing a PASS plan, which includes a job developer.
Job developer works with special education teacher to find a job with a
veterinarian. After several months, they finally find opening in pet store.
During school hours, Fran becomes friendly with public librarian and begins
volunteering once a week.
Joins self-advocacy group (People First).
Begins to participate on state DD Council.
Joins a new health club (private) with a co-worker from the pet store.
They swim, explore other activities, and go to the Bahamas with Fran's
family to try scuba diving.
Loses job at pet store.
An MRC-funded employment training specialist (ETS) assists her in finding
two part-time positions: one in a mall pet store and another in a health
club, both accessible by public transportation.
Works on a nine-month project as a consultant to DD Council to develop
aerobic video for individuals with multiple disabilities. Works with health
club (with assistance from ETS) to incorporate exercise program into their
Halfway through the year a subsidized apartment becomes available. Fran
moves in with co-worker from previous job in pet store (who helps her manage
PCAs in exchange for rent).
Uses SSI money to pay rent.
DMR provides vouchers to pay for cleaning services, financial management,
Independent Living Center assesses new needs and provides adequate personal
Continues swimming, skiing, working in community theater, and loves scuba
divingbut doesn't do it too often because it costs too much!
Transition Services and the Law
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) & Chapter
Transition services are defined under the Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act (IDEA) (34 CFR 300.18) as a coordinated set of activities
for a student, designed within an outcome oriented process, that promotes
movement from school to post-school activities, including post-secondary
education, vocational training, integrated employment (including supported
employment), continuing and adult education, adult services, independent
living, or community participation. The coordinated set of activities must:
Transitional services described in both federal law (IDEA, see quote above)
and state law (Ch766) include post-secondary education, vocational training,
integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing and
adult education, adult services, independent living, and community participation.
At age 16 (and annually until graduation), any student with an Individualized
Educational Plan (IEP) is entitled to receive a set of coordinated services,
based on individual needs, preferences, and interests, which will assist
to prepare for adult life. These services may "include instruction, community
experiences, the development of employment and other post-school adult
living objectives, and, when appropriate, the acquisition of daily living
skills and functional vocational evaluation" (Ch766, ¶132.0). By coordinating
efforts through the education TEAM, an appropriate support schedule can
be facilitated. The student's transition needs should be discussed specifically
at the TEAM meeting on an annual basis, for example, at the time of review
Be based on the individual student's needs taking into account student's
preferences and interests; and
Include (i) instruction; (ii) community experiences, (iii) the development
of employment and other post school adult living objectives, and, (iv)
if appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills and functional vocational
It is essential for parents and school professionals to ensure that
transitional services are discussed at the TEAM meeting and incorporated
into the IEP by the time the student turns 16, although in some cases,
this may be done as early as age 14. If the TEAM determines it is appropriate
to plan for transition for a student younger than 16, it should still use
the Statement of Needed Transition Services. Goals and objectives relating
to, for example, vocational education, and requiring specially designed
instruction can be addressed in the middle school years in the Annual Needed
Services Statement for Instruction. The TEAM also might discuss other areas,
but decide that some Annual Needed Services Statements, such as those in
post-secondary education, living arrangements, and employment opportunities,
should be addressed when the student reaches high school.
Although the adult service system has the major responsibility for transition
planning for post-school special services, it is important to remember
that schools are responsible for the transitional process up to graduation
or until the student leaves school at age 22.
State law requires the IEP TEAM to include information about graduation
in the IEP if a student is 14 years or older. Students with special needs
do not have to graduate until they have met all the graduation requirements
applicable to all students. When the student is 14 years of age, the IEP
must include a statement indicating whether the student is expected to
graduate; if so, the IEP must indicate what criteria must be met and must
include a plan to complete the criteria. Each succeeding year prior to
graduation, these criteria and the plan should be reviewed. As the student
approaches graduation, the parent/guardian must receive full notice that
graduation is intended and will result in a termination of the special
education services. If the parent/guardian believes that the graduation
criteria have not been met, then the parent/guardian may elect to refuse
graduation and continue services up to age 22. The student, upon reaching
age 18, assumes full authority over his/her own educational program (unless
guardianship proceedings have been completed) and may independently choose
(if available) or refuse graduation.
Note: The Education Reform Law may require a change in the graduation
section of the IEP. Beginning with the graduating class of 1999, all students
will have to demonstrate competency in the areas of mathematics, science
and technology, history and social studies, English/language arts, and
foreign language in order to receive a high school diploma. The Department
of Education is in the process of designing and developing an assessment
system that will address the impact of the competency determination graduation
requirement for students with disabilities.
IDEA Transition Service Self-Survey
The following questions will help you measure your program's compliance
with IDEA in regard to transition. These questions are designed around
the four components of transition as defined in section 300.18 of the final
regulations of IDEA.
Students are invited to attend their IEP/TEAM meeting.
Parents are invited to attend their child's IEP/TEAM meeting.
Strategies are documented and in place to secure student's preferences
and interests when they do not attend their IEP/TEAM meeting.
Appropriate adult service agencies are invited to the IEP/TEAM meeting.
Strategies are in place to secure the adult service agencies' participation
when they do not attend the IEP/TEAM meeting.
The linkages and responsibilities of the adult service agencies are specified
on the Statement of Needed Transition Services.
All students, age 16 (or younger if appropriate), who are on IEPs have
a documented transition plan as part of their IEP (Statement of Needed
The Statement of Needed Transition Services addresses all outcome areas
including instruction, community experiences, employment, post-secondary
education, daily living skills, and functional vocational evaluation.
If the Statement of Needed Transition Services does not include each of
the above areas, it specifies the reason an area is not needed.
Goals and objectives on the IEP reflect the outcome areas identified on
the Statement of Needed Transition Services.
The Statement of Needed Transition Services reflects the students' and
The Statement of Needed Transition Services is reviewed annually.
Necessary accommodations are provided at the IEP/TEAM meeting (e.g., assistive
Parents express satisfaction with transition plans for their children.
Students express satisfaction with their transition plans.
Chapter 688 (Ch688)
Transitional services described in Ch688, also known as the "Turning 22
Law," include participation in a formal interagency planning process and
an Individual Transition Plan (ITP) for students projected to require continuing/ongoing
support in adult life.
This planning process starts at least two years before the end of special
education services with a referral from the Local Education Agency (LEAthe
school system) to one of seven human services agencies in the state (see
Primary Transition Agencies in Appendix I: Resource Guide for information
regarding these agencies). Only students with severe disabilities (typically
defined as persons who will need continuing adult services from one or
more adult agency) are eligible for Ch688 planning. (These students, as
all students with disabilities, must also receive Ch766 transition services
starting at age 16). Once eligibility is determined, a Ch688 liaison (from
a human services agency) convenes an interagency ITP meeting, which should
include the student, family members, school staff, other human services
agencies, and, possibly, private service providers, to develop the ITP.
The ITP describes residential, day/vocational, and/or support services
that the person will need after leaving school. It is recommended that
the 688 transition planning meeting be coordinated with students' TEAM
It is essential that services listed on the ITP are not limited to what
is currently available. Rather, ITP services should reflect what the individual
really wants and how best to support the person to become as independent
as possible in adult life. It is also important to understand that Ch688
is not a continuation of Ch766 and that the provision of adult services
is subject to annual funding from the state budget by the Massachusetts
legislature. When a student turns 22, entitlement to services ends. Nothing
automatically guarantees that the services will be available to the student
after turning 22. Chapter 688 is not an entitlement program. On the other
hand, the ITP functions as documentation of service needs and can be useful
in assisting to plan, advocate for, and procure additional funding for
The Bureau of Transitional Planning (BTP), part of the Massachusetts
Executive Office of Health and Human Services (EOHHS), monitors the Ch688
transitional planning process. The Transitional Advisory Committee (TAC),
comprised of representatives of each human services agency and the Department
of Education, assists the BTP. The TAC reviews each ITP, makes recommendations,
and approves the plan. It is then sent to the student and family for acceptance
Chapter 688 is intended to provide a coordinated planning process for
students with severe disabilities in need of adult services from one or
more human services agencies. If a student is ineligible for Ch688 services,
he/she is not necessarily ineligible for services from an adult human service
agency. A request for services can be made directly to any human services
agency, separate from the Ch688 process, with the proviso that each agency
has its own eligibility requirements.
Each agency has its own eligibility requirements. Depending on the agency,
students may apply for services and be eligible prior to the transition
years. Check with the agencies' requirements for more information.
Example: A child with vision difficulties may receive mobility
training from MCB prior to her transition years.
Even if a student is not eligible for Ch688 and is not referred through
Ch688, he/she may be eligible for services from the agency.
Example: A student with a valid medical disability may be eligible
for MRC services but be ineligible for Ch688 because he is not perceived
as an individual who will need ongoing, continuing support.
Comparison of IDEA/Chapter 766 and Chapter 688
(as related to students of transition age)
||one-time meeting (planning may be ongoing)
|for any student with an IEP
||for eligible students with severe disabilities
|services based on current & future needs, preferences and interests
||planning based on adult service needs; delivery of services based on
|evaluation team develops IEP
||interagency group (e.g., school, multiple agencies), coordinated by
adult human service agency, develops ITP
|IEP incorporates Statement of Needed Transition Services
||ITP lists services in accordance with individual needs
|appropriate services guaranteed
||services depend on funding and availability
|funding is mandated by law
||funding depends on annual state budget
|entitlement -- all necessary services must be provided
||not an entitlement -- planning only
|IEP in effect until the next agreed-upon IEP through graduation
or until age 22 (whichever comes first)
||ITP in effect from end of CH766 until replacement by adult service/work
Getting Ready for the Ch688 ITP Meeting:
Remember that regular educators can be a part of transition planning too.
They can offer a good deal of insight into regular education classes and
activities that are open to all students. They can also be included in
the student planning and meet the individuals who will be providing them
with assistance and support in including the student in regular classes.
Be certain the ITP meeting is coordinated with the annual review of the
Be certain that the student and all members of the TEAM are invited to
participate along with the human services agency representatives. It is
important that all individuals familiar with the student provide input.
Make a list of services you believe will be needed and who you think should
be responsible for the delivery of each of these services.
Go into the ITP meeting with a list of questions. Jot down further questions
as they arise. Be sure to get answers to all the questions before the end
of the meeting, or at least know when and by whom the questions will be
Although the ITP probably will not be written at the meeting, make sure
that all needed services have been identified. If these services cannot
be obtained, be clear about the reasons.
Discuss when services may begin and which agency(ies) may be responsible.
If the ITP is written during the course of the meeting, do not sign it.
Wait until you have read over and understand all the information and are
completely satisfied with the content.
Make sure that a plan of action is developed during the meeting. You should
be clear about what will happen next (e.g., when the ITP will be received,
who the liaison will be).
Encourage relatives, friends, and/or advocates to attend the ITP meeting.
They can provide moral support, take notes, and add information.
(How Does Chapter 688 Work? will
be placed here)
Steps of the Transition Planning Process and the Completion
of the Statement of Needed Transition Services
The following steps describe the process of transitionFigure 2 represents
the process graphically. Although many of these steps are required by law,
this section is meant to focus on the process rather than the legal requirements.
Included in these steps (Step 5) are details regarding the completion of
the Statement of Needed Transition. Each of the following steps will assist
the student in achieving his/her desired outcomes and create a smoother
process for all involved. The student should be involved throughout the
Steps of the transition planning process:
Step 1: Determining preferences and interests
related to adult life
Step 2: Developing a vision for adult life
Step 3: Providing written notice of IEP/annual
Step 4: Conducting IEP/annual review meeting
Step 5: Developing the Statement of Needed Transition
Step 6: Soliciting necessary approvals on IEP
Step 7: Implementing services/supports and evaluating
The Transition Planning Process Flow Chart
(converted to text)
Begin at age 16 or earlier if appropriate
1. Determining preferences and interestes related
to adult life
2. Developing a vision for adult life
3. Providing written notice of IEP/annual review
desired living situation
desired areas of leisure/recreation
4. Conducting IEP/annual review meeting
5. Developing a statement of needed transition
adult service agency representatives (if appropriate)
community contacts (e.g., chamber of commerce)
Individualized Education Plan
6. Soliciting necessary approvals (written signatures
of the student and parent) & making necessary submission
Statement of Needed Transition Services
Ch688 Referral for student within two years of graduation
7. Implementing services/supports & evaluating
Step 1: Determining
preferences and interests related to adult life
Because transition services "must be based on the individual student's
needs, taking into account the student's preferences and interests" [§300.18(b)(1)],
determining these preferences and interests becomes a crucial step in the
transition process. For some students this will be a simple task. They
will be able to articulate choices to pursue in their life after high school
(e.g., work, military, college, marriage, condominium ownership) and the
services and supports to assist them are already in place. Other students
may not have a sense of the world of possibilities open to them and may
require varying degrees of assistance and strategies to aid them in learning
about the available choices.
It is important to take into account that not every strategy is applicable
or necessary for every student, but rather the use of any or all strategies
should be based on the individual. It is critical to ensure that opportunities
for those students who need to experience a variety of options across different
life domains (e.g., work, recreation/leisure, community living, self-care),
and in diverse settings, occur with the needed intensity, frequency, and
duration. To ensure that the student has ample time to explore the vast
array of options available, the transition process may need to begin earlier
than the mandated age of 16. An early start often facilitates a student's
ability to conceptualize what he/she wants to do in life.
The following ideas may be utilized to assist any student (with or without
a disability) to develop directions for their lives after high school.
These are only suggestions and are neither required nor represent an exhaustive
list. Use the ideas as a starting pointand be creative!
Remember that although each one of these can be used independently, a combination
of practices will yield the most reliable results. For students with disabilities,
it is especially helpful to incorporate the ideas from these procedures/techniques
into the IEP. In this way, the IEP will truly reflect the students' goals.
Functional Vocational Assessment
Person Centered Planning (PCP)
As one begins gathering information to aid the student in identifying
his/her choices, one must get information from all parties involved in
the student's life (e.g., family, friends) and, most important, to include
the student as a source of information. In addition to identifying the
student's choices, one should also gather information regarding what the
student has already accomplished in working toward those choices. One may
collect data formally, using a standard interview protocol (e.g., developing
a parent, student, or teacher questionnaire), or informally, using a general
There is a wide range of standardized tests that include achievement
tests, psychometric tests, and those tests that are discipline-specific
(e.g., physical therapy, speech therapy, occupational therapy). Determination
about which tests are appropriate should be made by considering each student
Functional Vocational Assessment
The functional vocational assessment is the only type of student assessment
that is specifically addressed in the Individuals with Disabilities Education
Act's transition requirements (see functional vocational evaluation - 34CFR
300.18). This type of assessment identifies an individual's vocational
potential by measuring his/her performance on actual job tasks in a variety
of environments. Although this type of assessment is not necessary for
every student, it does offer another measure in addition to/instead of
standardized tests. The assessment should yield two outcomes:
1) It should provide students with enough understanding of their strengths,
area(s) of need, and the job market to explore sufficiently what work they
might or might not enjoy and for what jobs they have particular talents;
2) It should provide instructors, employers, and community services
staff with information about the student's preferences, behavior, approach
to learning, initiative, need for assistive technology, communication needs,
physical and mental endurance, medical status, transportation needs, specific
work skills, and the need for specific instructional approaches.
If you are not familiar with a local resource that can assist you in
conducting a functional vocational assessment, consider contacting a community
human services provider or a state agency (e.g., MRC, DMR, DOE, DET).
Another technique to identify and document a student's abilities is
with a written, video, and/or pictorial portfolio of demonstrated skills
and activities. This compilation of students' work through a portfolio
assessment emphasizes "experimentation," "demonstration," "activity," and
"project-based learning." There is less emphasis on the traditional "pencil
and paper" assessment practices, which only capture a student's performance
within the time and according to the structure of that specific "test."
Students' work may be contained in folders, referred to as portfolios,
that represent different stages of their work (beginning, in process, best
work). A sample of what the portfolio may include may be a resume, photographs
taken while working at a specific job, letters of recommendation, and student-generated
products (e.g., artwork, writing samples). Students are required to demonstrate
their work through a learning process and share in assessing their work
as well. Students are taught to be critical reviewers of their own work.
This performance-based assessment process promotes ideals and goals of
transition planning: working toward having dreams, aspirations, and goals,
where the student is actually in the process and can see through demonstration
where he or she is and what needs to be done to achieve it.
Observation of the student across all domains (e.g., at home, at school,
in the community, at work) is a very useful strategy and can enhance the
anecdotal information gained from interviews and the results obtained from
standardized tests. Observation will render information on the student,
his/her current skills, and the environment associated with the skill(s).
Techniques exist that may be used or modified for this purpose, check with
your local school psychologist or special education administrator for guidance.
Person Centered Planning (PCP)
During recent years the terms Personal Futures Planning, MAPS, Life
Long Planning, and Whole Life Planning have been used to describe
a planning process to assist students in identifying visions of their lives
and strategies that will achieve the choices that have been identified.
Generically known as Person Centered Planning (PCP), this process is not
mandated; however, it can assist in ensuring that the Statement of Needed
Transition and the goals on the IEP reflect the student's vision
for his/her future, including employment, post-secondary education, community-based
living arrangements, and recreation/leisure.
During the PCP the vision of the student's life is developed, typically
with the assistance of a support group chosen by the student and a trained
facilitator. Working together, the student learns how to make decisions
about his/her own life in a positive nonthreatening way, a skill that will
be useful in both the immediate future and throughout the student's life.
For some students, this may be the first time that they are asked about
their own lives. They will need the support of a committed group of family
and friends to succeed.
It is important to note the planning process will vary according to
the preferences of the student. Times and meeting places are set at the
convenience of the student, family, and friends in the support group. This
type of process may not be for everyone. It is time-consuming and may be
seen as intrusive to some students and families. It requires commitment
and positive energy from each team member.
Please note: A Person Centered Planning meeting does not replace
an IEP/TEAM meeting but assists the student and family to develop a vision
of adult life.
Refer to Appendix I under Person Centered Planning for resources.
Step 2: Developing a vision
for adult life
The information gathered in Step 1 will be used with the student to assist
him/her in developing a vision for adult life that articulates his/her
choices in the major life domains (e.g., employment, recreation and leisure,
post-secondary education, housing). Whenever possible, it is best to conduct
this activity prior to the student's TEAM meeting. This will enable the
student and/or his/her family to be prepared for the meeting, thus streamlining
the meeting and providing the opportunity for the student to take the lead
in the planning process. This vision for adult life will then be incorporated
into the transition statement.
Step 3: Providing written
notice of IEP/annual review meeting
Providing written notice to all parties (i.e., student, parent, applicable
human service agency representative) is not only mandated but is also quite
helpful for maintaining records of the annual review meeting. It is also
a good practice to follow up each letter with a phone call, ensuring that
each party received and understood the letter. It is surprising how often
a phone call/personal contact can make the difference between active participation
in the meeting and no participation at all. Correspondence with the family
must be sent in their native language (the primary language of the home).
Accommodations must be made (e.g., for individuals who are blind or unable
to read in any language).
IDEA requires that when a TEAM meeting is being held for a student,
if appropriate, the Local Education Authority (LEA) must invite the student
and a representative of any other agency that is likely to be responsible
for providing or paying for transition services (34 CFR 300.344 (c)). If
the purpose of the transition meeting is to discuss transition services,
the written notice must indicate this purpose. If an invited agency does
not send a representative to a meeting, the school district must take other
steps to obtain the participation of that agency or an alternative agency
in planning any transition services. Other steps to ensure an agency's
participation may include conference calls, correspondence, rescheduling
meetings at mutually agreed times and places, and direct contact by the
student and/or parent with agency representatives to invite them to the
TEAM meeting. Written notice must be provided to all appropriate parties
10 days prior to the IEP/TEAM meeting. For other TEAM meetings, notice
for meetings must be provided early enough to ensure that each member will
have an opportunity to attend.
Step 4: Conducting
IEP/annual review meeting
An IEP/TEAM meeting, for students of transition age, is conducted to discuss
the student's strengths and weaknesses as they relate to the student's
vision for adult life. The IEP and the Statement of Needed Transition Services
should be developed during the meeting. Input should be solicited from
all participants, including the student, to ensure that the Statement of
Needed Transition Services adequately reflects the desires of the student,
and that the goals of the IEP will assist the student in attaining his/her
post-school vision. It is helpful to solicit this input before drafting
goals and objectives. Evaluation and TEAM chairs should provide support
to staff in writing draft goals and objectives for the IEP/TEAM meeting.
Each participant at the meeting must understand that the DRAFT goals and
objectives are only DRAFTS and they can be changed, added to, or otherwise
revised. Additionally, the corresponding areas of need, and services and
supports must be reviewed.
One individual should be responsible for moderating the meeting and
should encourage all present, including the student, parents, school personnel,
and outside agency representatives, to participate actively. If the student
or agency representatives are not in attendance, the school district is
responsible for documenting how it will identify the student's preferences
and interests and how the district will secure the participation of the
The focus at TEAM meetings should be on transition rather than reading/reciting
evaluation reports. Evaluation reports can be sent out to TEAM member prior
to the meeting. Evaluations, or parts of evaluations, may need to be discussed
prior to the meeting, or they can be brought up at the meeting in the context
of transition. For example, if an individual is reading at a certain level,
the discussion might focus not on concerns over the level of reading but
on what types of functional reading the student might need in order to
acheive his/her goals for transition.
Tips for Securing Agency Participation
Establish an annual meeting schedule to discuss transition specific issues
for groups of students
Invite agencies to information sessions for students, parents and teachers
(e.g., an information fair)
Encourage students and parents to initiate contact and request involvement/information.
Send a copy of IEP/Statement of Needed Transition Services to the agency
Prioritize your needs. For example, let them know that 30 students are
going to need services from their agency but you currently need assistance
only with five.
Contact advocacy groups to assist.
Schedule meetings at mutually agreed-upon times and places.
Step 5: Developing the
Statement of Needed Transition Services
The IDEA mandates that each student's IEP/annual review must contain a
written statement of the student's vision for adult life and the corresponding
areas of need and related services and supports. This must occur for all
students receiving special education services, at the latest by age 16
and by age 14 when appropriate. This statement must also include the responsible
agency for providing the service(s). This statement should provide direction
for writing many of the goals and objectives on the IEP and assist in ensuring
that during their latter years in school, students with disabilities will
be working toward meeting their own expectations about their future. The
Department of Education has developed a form called the Statement of Needed
Transition Services, which is now part of the IEP. Instructions for completing
this form will be discussed in this step.
As a teacher, it is easy to feel overwhelmed. Students, parents, and
other TEAM members look to a teacher for information. Sometimes their expectations
can lead the teacher to feel like he/she should know everything. Perhaps
it might be best to view teachers as "information brokers." An information
broker does not have all the answers but rather knows where to go to get
the information or answers and shares those resources with the other TEAM
Date of Birth:
STATEMENT OF NEEDED TRANSITION SERVICES
1. POST-SCHOOL VISION STATEMENT
Describe student's desired outcomes in adult living, post-secondary,
and working environments:
2. NEEDED TRANSITION SERVICES INCLUDING INTERAGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES
Goals and objectives must be written only if the transition service
requires specially designed instruction and/or related services.
Following are instructions for completing each section of the preceding
1. POST-SCHOOL VISION STATEMENT
Describe student's desired outcomes in adult living, post-secondary,
and working environments:
The Post-School Vision Statement (number 1) is an outcome statement
that describes the living, post-secondary, and working situations that
the student wants to achieve after graduation from high school or turning
22 years of age. The Post-School Vision may include vocational training,
integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing and
adult education, adult services, independent living, and community participation,
as appropriate for the individual needs and desires of each student. This
statement is developed after careful consultation and planning with the
student (see discussion under Step 1, p. 21) and must reflect only the
student's choices and not those of other individuals (e.g., teachers, family,
or friends). The Post-School Vision Statement differs from goals typically
written on IEPs in that it may include information that extends beyond
one year and the context of the school setting. Since the vision statement
describes work, educational, and living situations that will be realized
after high school completion, it may be necessary to involve individuals
and agencies within the community as well.
The Post-School Vision Statement should briefly describe where the student
wants to work and live and whether he/she wants to continue training beyond
high school. It is the long-term goal statement of the student and must
be reviewed at least annually so that as the student matures and his/her
desires change, the vision can continue to reflect the student's most current
choices. It is individualized and must represent the student's preferences
and interests and is geared toward the self-determination of the student.
The statement is dynamic, will evolve over time, and will also guide subsequent
Guidelines for writing the post-school vision statement (section1)
Guidelines for Writing the Needed Transition Services Including Interagency
Responsibilities and/or Linkage(s) (Section 2)
It is developed as the result of the transition planning process and should
reflect the student's preferences and interests.
It specifies the work, educational, and living situation that the student
desires after graduation or upon turning 22.
It specifies a "real-life" adult living outcome. (A goal statement that
specifies a process or skill-building behavior that leads to but does not
result in an adult living outcome is not a valid post-school vision.)
Do not worry if the lines on the form do not provide enough space in which
to write; feel free to continue the statement on the back of the form or
a separate sheet of paper.
Definition of Section 2 Terms:
For each area (Instruction, Community experience, Employment and other
post-school adult living objectives, Daily Living Skills, and Functional
Vocational Evaluation), check either yes or no. (A check in the yes box
indicates a need in the particular area.)
If you have checked yes, write an Annual Needed Services Statement and
record the responsible party (see below for definitions).
If you have checked no, the basis for the decision must be stated in the
areas of Instruction, Community experiences, and Employment and other post-school
adult living objectives. No reason must be given for a "no" answer in the
areas of Daily Living Skills or Functional Vocational Evaluation.
An Annual Needed Services Statement describes what the
student's needs are in the specific area for the coming year. If specially
designed instruction and/or related services are required to meet the stated
needs, then goals and objectives must be written into the IEP, based on
this statement of need, under Part B, Student Section, Student Performance
Profile and Goals and Objectives.
The Responsible Party can be special, regular, or vocational
education, an outside agency, parents, the student, or others. However,
because this is part of the IEP, the LEA ultimately will be responsible
for monitoring the process. If parties do not follow through with their
responsibilities, the LEA will be responsible for reconvening the TEAM
to identify alternative options and modify the IEP.
Note TR (Transition Related) next to IEP goals that are transition related.
Goals and objectives must be written only if the transition service requires
specially designed instruction and/or related services.
Instruction refers to those services that are part of
the teaching and learning process and are typically provided by schools
(e.g., academic and/or vocational skill training, communication, study
skills, problem solving).
Community experiences are those services that are provided
outside of the school building, in community settings, by schools and other
agencies (e.g., counseling, recreational services, development of self-advocacy
Employment and other post-school living objectives include
community-based work and recreation experiences, job site training programs
and supported employment that lead toward post-school outcomes.
The above three areas may overlap in certain situations. For example,
recreation may be found under "Community experiences" and "Employment and
other post-school living objectives." In this situation, you would check
"yes" in both areas.
Daily Living Skills typically refer to self-care skills
and activities of daily life such as personal hygiene, housekeeping, etc.
Functional Vocational Evaluation is an assessment of an
individual in an authentic work situation (see p. 24).
Section 3: Chapter 688 Referral
Determine if this section of the transition services form is applicable
to the student at the time of the TEAM meeting (i.e., the student is approaching
high school graduation or the age of 22 and may require continuing special
If a student is going to require continuing special services from one or
more state adult human service agencies (e.g., MRC, DMR, MCB, MCDHH), and
it is two years prior to graduation or age 22, check "Applicable," if not,
check "Not Applicable." The "Applicable" box must be checked with the consent
of the student over 18 years old, or the parent or guardian (when appropriate).
If "Applicable" is checked, check "yes," in response to the next part which
reads "A Chapter 688 referral should be made for the student two years
prior to graduation or age 22." If "Not Applicable" is checked, check "no."
If "yes is checked, a referral must be made to the Bureau of Transitional
Planning by completing the Chapter 688 student Referral Form (see Appendix
IV) two years prior to the completion of school. The date of this referral
is written in the appropriate place. A referral date may need to be documented
subsequent to the TEAM meeting. Such referral shall be made at least two
years prior to the child's anticipated graduation or twenty-second birthday.
The liaison from the human service agency, assigned by the Bureau of Transitional
Planning, shall participate in the development of the child's IEP and shall
also lead in the development of an Individualized Transition Plan (ITP)
which is a separate document from the Statement of Needed Transition Services.
Step 6: Soliciting necessary
approvals on IEP
After the parents or student receives the IEP/Statement of Needed Transition
Services developed at the TEAM meeting, they have 30 calendar days to review
the IEP, choose options, sign it, and return the IEP to the school. The
parents and student should use this time to read the IEP very carefully.
If they have any questions or comments, they can call the Evaluation TEAM
chairperson to arrange a meeting to discuss the plan. If the IEP is rejected
in whole or in part, the Bureau of Special Education Appeals (BSEA) process
begins. (For more detailed information on the special education appeals
process, please refer to "A Parents Guide to the Special Education Appeals
Process," which may be obtained through the Department of Education or
Step 7: Implementing services/supports
and evaluating as scheduled
The IDEA requires that the Statement of Needed Transition Services, as
part of the student's IEP, be reviewed annually (at a minimum). Ideally,
all the issues and services identified on the Statement of Needed Transition
Services are embedded within the goals and objectives of the student's
IEP. However, since everything in a Statement of Needed Transition Services
does not necessarily find its way into a goal, it is crucial that goals
and objectives embedded in the IEP focus on the student, measure what the
student is doing (e.g., progressing, learning), and/or clearly identify
options (e.g., options outside of school, in the community at large).
When TEAM Members Disagree
Sometimes TEAM members do not agree as to how a student's IEP should
look or what goals should be prioritized. This is typical! Everyone has
different ideas and opinions. The best a TEAM leader or other team member
can do in this type of situation is acknowledge the differing opinions
and facilitate a discussion to come to some sort of decision on which all
Incorporating the Statement of Needed Transition Services
Into the IEP
IDEA requires that transition services and supports occur while the student
is still in school and should guide program and curriculum content. There
are two levels at which the Statement of Needed Transition Services needs
to be incorporated into the IEP:
1. If specialized instruction is needed, the goals and objectives
of the IEP need to incorporate the information identified in Section 2
of the Statement of Needed Transition Services.
2. NEEDED TRANSITION SERVICES INCLUDING INTERAGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES
Goals and objectives must be written only if the transition service
requires specially designed instruction and/or related services.
Fgure A: Excerpt from Section 2 of the Statement of Needed
Transition Services Form
If "yes" is checked anywhere in this section of the Statement of Needed
Transition Services form, and specially designed instruction and/or related
services are needed, Part 3 of the IEP form (see below) must incorporate
3. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Annual Goal #1
Objectives and Evaluation Procedures and Schedule
Figure B: Part 3. Goals and Objectives on the IEP
For example, one student is interested in working as a secretary. Under
"Instruction" on Section 2 of the Statement of Needed Transition Services,
it may have been determined that this student needs specialized instruction
for gaining the computer and typing skills related to his vision of secretarial
work in a busy office. Although his school offers typing and computer classes
which would be helpful in his pursuit, he may need specialized instruction
on certain equipment and during certain courses. An Annual Needed Service
statement has been completed and a responsible party designated. This must
be reflected in the Goals and Objectives of the IEP. The student's goal
on the IEP may be "to learn skills necessary for successfully attending
secretarial program at community college." This goal will be marked with
a TR (Transition Related, see page 32). One of the objectives may then
be "learning word processing and grammar check program on an adapted computer."
2. The post-school vision statement identified in the Statement of
Needed Transition Services should become a driving force for the program
and curriculum content of the IEP. If specialized instruction is needed,
the services related to the vision statement should be clearly identifiable
in the IEP in Section 4: Special Education Service Delivery.
If "yes" is checked anywhere in Section 2 of the Statement of Needed
Transition Services form, Part 4 of the IEP form (see below) must reflect
any specialized instruction necessary.
4. SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICE DELIVERY
Figure C: Part 4. Special Education Service
Delivery on the IEP
Although many students learn skills necessary for becoming a secretary
(e.g., word processing and grammar check programs), some students may need
specialized instruction. For example, a student may learn to use a grammar
checking program on the computer during an English class while other students
in the same class may be learning the rules of grammar without the aid
of a computer. Or the student may need to learn how to use specialized
computer equipment if standard equipment is not adequate. For this student,
"yes" would be checked under "instruction" on Section 2 of the Statement
of Needed Transition Form and an Annual Needed Service statement would
be written. Any appropriate Goals and Objectives would be filled out on
Part 3 of the IEP. Service Delivery would then be reflected on Part 4 of
the IEP. For example, under A. Consultation (figure C), the special education
teacher may assist the regular education teacher in adapting the English
curriculum. Under B, the special education teacher may attend a computer
class with the student and assist him/her in learning to use specially
Whether sections A, B and/or C on Part 4 of the IEP are completed
will vary with each student. The constant variable is ensuring that items
listed on Section 2 of the Statement of Needed Transition Services are
reflected in Section 3 and Section 4 of the IEP.
Planning Tips for . . .
Know your rights. You have the right
Get information. If you have questions about your education or if you
are worried about how your disability will affect certain things in your
future you can talk to
to live where you want -- with a roommate or by yourself, in an apartment,
a condo, or a house; in a city, a town, or in the country
to work in a job you like, to work alone or with others, to get paid for
your work, to change jobs when you want to, and to have a career
to belong to clubs and civic organizations, to vote, and to be part of
to have access to all public services and public buildings, including theaters,
stores, town halls, libraries, etc.
Don't be afraid to dream.
another student, your brother or sister, a recent high school graduate
your mom or dad, a friend of the family, or another adult you trust
a guidance counselor, the high school principal, or a teacher you like
Take a leadership role.
Think about what you want to do for work and for fun, where you want to
live, if you want to go on to college, who you want for friends
Think about what kinds of help and support you might need to work toward
If someone tells you that your dreams are unrealistic, make a list of steps
you need to take to work toward your goals
If you do not know where to start, ask for advice from friends or family
It's your life!
Be prepared to answer questions and to make your wishes known. (Get a copy
of the Statement of Needed Transition Services, Part A of the IEP, and
go over the questions before the meeting.)
Figure out what's most important to you now and in the future
Be prepared for IEP meetings.
Foster independence in your child from a young age (e.g., encourage the
practice of self-help skills, assign specific responsibilities around the
Provide your child with the opportunity to make choices, fostering self-determination
and decision-making skills
Encourage your child to dress and groom appropriately for various occasions
(look to his/her siblings or peers for ideas)
Introduce your child to community activities beginning at an early age.
Take advantage of inclusive day-care and preschool settings. Involve your
child in community recreation activities. Make connections with local stores
and other potential job sites. Explore a variety of jobs with your child.
Reinforce IEP goals and objectives at homesystems used in school and at
home should be consistent whenever possible. Talk to the teachers to figure
out ways to make this work.
Become familiar with educational and disability-related laws. Get to know
your legislators and other decision makers.
Join an advocacy organization
Get to know your school and the TEAM members.
Bring a relative, friend, or an advocate to your child's TEAM meeting.
In addition to providing moral support, many times they gather information
that may assist you. If possible, ask them to take notes at the meeting.
Notify your director of special education regarding any specific individuals
who you want to participate in the IEP development process
Prepare a list of questions. Jot down other questions that occur to you
during the meeting. Ask for explanation of terms you don't understand.
Be sure to get answers to all questions before the meeting ends.
Think about the goals, objectives, and/or plan that is developed. Are these
skills useful in preparing for adult life (i.e., for getting and keeping
a job, for living in the community, for making friends)?
Do not sign the IEP at the meeting. Wait until you have read over the information
and are completely satisfied with its contents.
Leave the meeting with a clear understanding of what will happen next,
that is, when you will receive the written IEP, who the contact liaison
Most of all, don't be intimidated; but if you are, know where to go for
Find out about adult services and issues.
Get to know the educational staff--both regular and special education service
Become familiar with all school services including regular education and
extra-curricular activities (e.g., sports, clubs). Develop relationships
with the people involved in the activities that interest your child.
Join the Parent-Teacher Organization, the Special Needs Parent Advisory
Committee, and/or the School Council. Talk with other parents to share
creative ideas about developing and accessing inclusive programs.
Talk to your son/daughter and listen to his/her ideas.
Figure out what supports you or others currently provide to your son/daughter
that will need to be taken over by someone else
Become familiar with the variety of programs and services available for
your son/daughter now and as he/she gets older. Find out which will most
likely assist your child in developing the skills that foster independence
and community participation.
Begin financial planning for adulthood. At age 18, assist your son/daughter
to apply for supplemental security income (SSI). Find out about Plans to
Achieve Self-Sufficiency (PASS plans). Consider estate planning issues.
When it is time to start talking about transitional planning (age 14 to
16), ensure that the school invites the appropriate adult human services
agency(ies) and service providers to the IEP meeting. Although it may seem
a bit early to apply for adult services (when necessary), this is a good
way to get to know service coordinators, counselors, and others, and to
find out what is available in your area. In some cases, there are long
waiting lists, for example, for housing, so it is best to plan ahead.
Talk to your son/daughter about his/her dreams. Concentrate on his/her
interests and abilities rather than disabilities. Help your child to explore
different ideas, even if your dreams and expectations are different.
Encourage your son/daughter to be a part of the entire planning process
whenever possible. Make sure he/she attends TEAM meetings and has the chance
to have a say in decisions. This will increase your child's chances of
maintaining cooperation and involvement, and achieving success.
Find out about community services and opportunities.
Understand the dreams and wishes of your students and their families.
Identify and observe local community-based places of recreation. Let the
leaders/directors/instructors know that they can call you if they ever
have questions about including individuals with disabilities.
Be familiar with local businesses that offer employment opportunities for
students. Develop relationships with potential employers.
Assist students in accessing activities of interest, including the full
array of choices (i.e., those choices that are available to all members
of the community)
Know about current educational practices.
Identify individual approaches to learning and problem-solving skills
Identify individual strengths and weaknesses in functional academics (e.g.,
math, communication, computers, problem solving) and in the major areas
of living (e.g., work, activities of daily living, recreation, community)
Teach students choice-making values and skills
Inform students about person centered planning processes and opportunities
Ensure that student and family preferences are acknowledged and incorporated
into the IEP/transition statement
Work with students and families even if you are in disagreement about their
dreams and expectations. Try not to limit creative ideas.
Think about vocational training opportunities for your students.
Identify necessary accommodations to enable student's participation in
state-wide mandated assessment programs and in PSAT/SAT testing or other
college entrance exams
Identify colleges or other post-secondary educational training opportunities
Ensure that the student and family members are aware of their rights to
be part of educational transitional planning
Guarantee that learning in the classroom connects to student's life experiences
Encourage and assist students to make connections in the community (e.g.,
recreation facilities, libraries, stores)
Work with guidance counselors as they work with students
Become familiar with adult services.
For younger students, identify vocational interests and abilities through
exploration activities in school
Identify and assist student gain access to guidance counselors, career
counseling activities, and job placement services
Provide older students with the widest array possible of community-based
work experiences for real wages
Ensure that students receive functional vocational evaluations at actual
job sites during the transition period
Assist students in developing a resume
From Transition in Texas: A Technical Reference Guide for the Development
of Quality Transition Plans
Invite representatives from human services agencies and service providers
to TEAM meetings to discuss transition issues
Maintain current listing of generic community resources (e.g., chamber
of commerce, local recreation opportunities, adult education programs)
Early planning is critical to success.
A "whole-person" and "person first" approach dominates the planning process,
with the consumer leading the planning team.
Service consumers and service providers work as a team. Successful outcomes
depend on the active participation of students with disabilities (consumers)
and their families.
Functional need rather than disability diagnosis or category forms the
basis of services.
Community inclusion, living and working in the community, is the highest
priority. People with disabilities possess independence and autonomy, exerting
control and choice over their own lives.
People with disabilities have a right to be productive, earning a living
wagemeasured through improvements in income level, employment status, or
job advancement or in work that contributes to the household or community.
AAMR American Association on Mental Retardation
ABE Adult Basic Education
ADA Americans with Disabilities Act
ADD Attention Deficit Disorder
ADL Activities of Daily Living
AER Association for the Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind
and Visually Impaired
AHEAD Association for Higher Education and Disability
BTP Bureau of Transitional Planning
CIT Counselor in Training (in a camp situation)
DET Department of Employment and Training
DMH Department of Mental Health
DMR Department of Mental Retardation
DOE Department of Education
DOL Department of Labor
DPH Department of Public Health
DPW Department of Public Welfare
DSS Department of Social Services
DYS Department of Youth Services
EEP Extended Employment Program
EIP Early Intervention Program (for children ages 0-3)
EOEA Executive Office of Economic Affairs
EOHHS U.S. Executive Office of Health and Human Services
EOHS Massachusetts Executive Office of Human Services
ETS Employment Training Specialist
FAFSA Financial Application for Federal Student Aid
FC Facilitated Communication
Federation Federation for Children with Special Needs
FLSA Fair Labor Standards Act
GPA Grade Point Average
HUD Department of Housing and Urban Development (U.S. and MA)
ICFs/MR Intermediate-Care Facilities for persons who are Mentally
ICI Institute for Community Inclusion
IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
IEP Individualized Education Plan (school)
IFSP Individualized Family Service Plan (for children ages 03)
IL Centers Independent Living Centers
IRWE Impairment-Related Work Expense
ISP Individual Service Plan (adult service provider)
ITP Individual Transition Plan (school and human service provider)
IWRP Individual Written Rehabilitation Plan (MRC and MCB)
JTPA Job Training Partnership Act
LEA Local Educational Authority (the school system)
LRE Least Restricted Environment
M.G.L. Massachusetts General Laws
MAAPS Massachusetts Association of 766-Approved Private Schools
MABE Massachusetts Association for Bilingual Education
MAC Massachusetts Advocacy Center
MATP Massachusetts Assistive Technology Partnership
MBTA Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
MCB Massachusetts Commission for the Blind
MCCD Massachusetts Coalition of Citizens with Disabilities
MCDHH Massachusetts Commission for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
MDDC Massachusetts Developmental Disabilities Council
MHFA Massachusetts Housing Finance Agency
MOD Massachusetts Office on Disability
MORR Massachusetts Office of Refugee Resettlement
MRC Massachusetts Rehabilitation Commission
MTI Massachusetts Transition Initiative
NIDRR National Institute on Disability Rehabilitation and Research
O/M Orientation and Mobility (services for individuals who are
OFC Office For Children
OHA State Office of Handicapped Affairs
OJT On-the-Job Training
OSEP Office of Special Education Programs
OSERS United States Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation
PAC Parent Advisory Committee
PASS Plans to Achieve Self Sufficiency
PCA Personal Care Assistant
PCP Person Centered Planning
PIC Private Industry Council
PTO Parent Teacher Organization
RAC Regional Advisory Council
RSC Rate Setting Commission
REB Regional Employment Board
RFP Request For Proposal
RRTC Rehabilitation Research and Training Center
RSA Rehabilitation Services Administration
SAC State Advisory Council
SAT Scholastic Achievement Testing
SDA Service Delivery Area
SEOG Supplemental Education Opportunity Grant
SHIP Statewide Head Injury Program (MRC)
SpEd Special Education
SSA Social Security Administration
SSDI Supplemental Security Disability Income
SSI Supplemental Security Income
TA Task Analysis
TAC Transitional Advisory Committee
TASH The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps
TJTC Targeted Job Tax Credit
TPC Transition Planning Committee
TTY or TDD Telecommunication Device for the Deaf
UAP University-Affiliated Program
UCP United Cerebral Palsy
VR Vocational Rehabilitation
Return to the Table of Contents