688 Referral: Referral to adult service agencies done by the school for a student, two years prior to graduation
Advocate: Person who provides support to an individual, group, or cause around issues and services that impact upon the daily lives of those involved
Assistive Technology: Technology that is available to assist individuals to participate in activities as independently as possible. This can include "Low Technology" (i.e., things that are typically found by the general population like timers, Velcro, calculators) to more advanced technology (e.g., wheelchairs, computers, talkers)
Case Manager: Person who works for a state human service agency and is responsible for developing a service plan for an individual and monitoring service delivery
Chapter 688: Also called the "Turning 22 Law," provides a process to plan for a variety of services at the time when an individual leaves school and enters into community based activities and/or adult service programs (called an Individual Transition Plan, or ITP). Programs, services, and activities stated in the ITP are not guaranteed by law. This law was in effect prior to IDEA (the current federal legislation that requires similar planning).
Chapter 766: Law that mandates free and appropriate special education and related services for all children ages 3 to 22 determined to have special education needs in Massachusetts
Consumer/Client: Refers to individuals receiving services from human service providers
Criterion-referenced Curriculum: Teaches primary academic skills rather than functional skills, which are necessary to participate in most community based environments
Day Activity: Refers to a type of service, usually in a sheltered workshop setting, that provides training in daily living, social, and language skills. Prevocational training may be provided.
Day Habilitation: Refers to a type of service, usually in a sheltered workshop setting, which provides nonwork, medically oriented therapy. Programming is funded by Medicaid.
Developmental Curriculum Design: Utilizes the principles of "normal" child development, which usually are not appropriate for students with special needs
Entitlement: A legal right, typically used in the context of Ch. 766 where children are entitled to services written in the IEP that are provided and/or monitored by the school system, or in the context of Ch 688, where a person is entitled to a plan, but receiving services is not an entitlement (i.e., services are not guaranteed)
Facilitator: Leads and chairs meetings to address student interests including Person Centered Planning meetings
Functional Vocational Assessment: Identifies an individual's vocational potential using actual job tasks in a variety of environments
Goals 2000: Initiative related to the overall improvement of education for all students
Individualized Education Plan: A plan, mandated by law, that states the goals and services for a student for a period of up to but for no longer than a year (it is rewritten each year to reflect changes in the educational program). The school system is required to provide all services written into the IEP.
Mandated: Required by law, typically used to refer to services that are required by law (e.g., Ch. 766 mandates that services written into the IEP be provided, Ch. 688 mandates a service plan but does not mandate that services be provided [services are often limited by the amount of funds made available by the statethere is no guarantee of availability when needed by the individual])
Natural Supports: Natural supportive relationships that are fostered and developed among individuals with disabilities and nondisabled co-workers, classmates, activity participants, neighbors, and etc.
Person Centered Planning: Planning that focuses on the individual and his/her interests, strengths, and needs. There are numerous models of this type of planning available.
PreVocational Work: (also called readiness training) Simulated or make-work tasks that are usually done in a classroom or sheltered workshop setting
Prototype: Used by a school system to refer to the type of school placement/program in which a student participates
Provider Agency or Vendor: Any private agency that offers residential, vocational, and/or support services that are purchased by state human service agencies
Reasonable Accommodation: Changes in an environment to meet the access needs of an individual in accordance with the ADA (civil rights legislation for individuals with disabilities)
Related Services: Services that can facilitate an individual's involvement in school, work, or community situations, including occupational, physical, speech, or recreation therapy
School-to-Work: Process of going to work (and being trained) in a community setting while still receiving services from the schoola way of assisting in the transition process for those individuals who are interested in having a job immediately following high school. Should begin no later than two years prior to graduation.
Self-Advocacy: An individual asserts, promotes, and manages for themselves their services and situations
Service Coordinator: see Case Manager
Standardized Assessments: Used to test and evaluate an individual's ability in a variety of areas using simulated settings and activities. Together with functional assessments, these help those on the TEAM begin to understand an individual's potential.
Statement of Needed Transition Services: Written statement (form provided by the Massachusetts Department of Education), to be completed no later than age 16 (and earlier when appropriate), that includes a vision for adult life and information regarding how the vision will be achieved
Supported Employment: The provision of ongoing supports from an external source (e.g., a state agency) to an individual in a paid, community based setting, where the majority of the workers do not have disabilities, directed at teaching the tasks of that specific job as they occur
Supported Work: The provision of short-term support from an external source (e.g., a state agency) to an individual in a paid, community-based job; the support is intended to be removed over time and replaced as necessary with natural supports
TEAM: Refers to the group of individuals who get together at least once a year to discuss the students IEP and transition plan. TEAM members often include the student, parent, special educator, regular educator, related services personnel (e.g., occupational therapist, physical therapist, speech therapist, recreation therapist), school psychologist, education Team Liaison, and others)
TEAM Meeting: Planning meeting to identify student preferences and interests and how these will be achieved. The IEP is developed according to the outcomes of this meeting.
Time Limited Training/Competitive Employment: see Supported Work
Transition: (in the special education and rehabilitation field) The process of a student's movement from school-based, sponsored activities and services to community-based and/or adult human service-sponsored services
Travel Training: Providing individuals with the skills to travel around their community (and other necessary areas) using whatever mode is available (e.g., walk, bus, car, train)
Vouchers: System of payment for services in which a human service agency provides money (or service hours) directly to a parent or individual in the form of cash or a voucher. The cash/voucher can then be used to purchase services from other agencies/individuals of one's choosing.
Work Activity: Services usually provided in a sheltered workshop setting which provides prevocational and vocational training to help develop work skills